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It isn’t so much what role the private sector plays in the determination of risks related to the challenges at the local level. It becomes more of what isn’t the private sector doing and why aren’t they contributing resources to Homeland Security. The private sector continually dedicates resources, funding, and personnel in support of Homeland Security and the operations associated with the partnership. “Within homeland security, there are five partnership archetypes that encompass the types of relationships we share with the private sector” (Department of Homeland Security, 2014, p. 61). These partnership archetypes allow Homeland Security and private sector organizations to utilize such models when challenges, roles, and responsibilities are defined. When challenges, roles, and responsibilities are not defined the problem increases, therefore the flexibility of the models can occur to achieve the desire outcome. The archetypes contribute to the private sector in the determination of risks related to the six challenges associated with Homeland Security. This is because the models can be applied to any situation or involvement between the two at the local level. When a model isn’t achievable, the method or intertwining or conjoint models helps achieve in determination.
A specific example of how a privately owned or operated companies and business add or reduce risk in one of the six strategic challenge areas is the Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Program. This program correlates to the terrorism strategic challenge because it requires the partnership between the federal industry and the airline industry. This requires airline industries to submit documentation of air cargo in advance regarding shipments arriving to the U.S. from foreign locations. Granted this was originally a voluntary process that airlines already participated in, however, in June 2018 it become a requirement. “This is a necessary measure as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) continues to raise the baseline on aviation security worldwide” (Department of Homeland Security, 2018, p. 1). It is a practical application in mitigating future terrorism because it requires airlines to submit the documentation of air cargo at the earliest possibility before the cargo is loaded on the plane that it’s being transported to the U.S. This program aids in the reduction and helps reduce terrorism because terrorism will employ any means necessary to send and receive the necessary tools and equipment to commit terrorist acts against U.S.
As I continue to read and learn about the Quadrennial homeland security review, the more I realize how important and informative of a document it is regarding threats to the US. Hopefully, the 2018 version is released soon so we can see how threats change and evolve. As it relates to threats and hazards to the US and critical infrastructure, the private sector and public collaborate often in order to ensure threat information is properly disseminated for the best and current security practices (DHS, 2014). The federal government maintains a steadfast relationship with the private sector to ensure stakeholders are properly managed and the best practices regarding security of the nation is adhered to (DHS, 2014). One key concern impacting the private sector is budgeting which can affect local investment for security of smaller communities not able to obtain outside funding (DHS, 2014). As the cyber environment continues to be at the forefront of threats facing the US, it is imperative DHS continues to partner with law enforcement partners and the private sector to determine how terrorist or extremist use the internet (DHS, 2014). Furthermore, after determining the online threat, local communities can be taught how to better protect themselves while online. This technique can be built up as the community becomes more aware of the threats.
An obvious but significant direct support from the private sector to the natural hazard strategic challenge is by contributing to disaster relief financing (Chandra, et al, 2016). This can be accomplished through a variety of ways, either short or long term through partnerships or supplemented by federal funds (Chandra, et al, 2016). Regardless, these public and private arrangements are vital in the successful recovery of a smaller community. A specific example I can recently remember is when multiple privately-owned power companies from the east coast sent personnel to NC and SC after hurricane Florence last year when hundreds of thousands of people did not have power. Through these efforts the power was able to be properly restored ultimately reducing the risk for electrical fires or “hot” lines scattered throughout the community.
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