Evaluation of Nursing Theories
Grand nursing theories and Middle-range nursing theories are two types of theories that have made major contributions to the development of nursing. Grand nursing theories are the broadest in scope and often offer general propositions and concepts in approaching nursing. Albeit not designed for empirical testing, they provide useful insights on the various disciplines present in nursing. They have thus played a major role in the advancement of the disciplines since most of their concepts are formed from relatively abstract ideas. Middle-range theories, being comparatively narrow in their scope than grand theories provide a bridge between the grand nursing theories and nursing practice theories. Their concepts are relatively lower in abstraction describing, and predicting phenomenon in the field. Florence Nightingale and Nola Pender are two theorists whose theory analysis strategies are discussed in the chapters. Nightingale’s theory is discussed in chapter 6 on Grand theories whereas Pender’s theory is discussed in chapter 11 on Middle-range theories.
Similarities in the Conclusions from Chapter 6 and 11
Nightingale’s environmental theory is in the category of human needs theory which is based on the idea that humans are biopsychosocial and spiritual beings. Pender’s theory of health promotion which is in the category of high middle-range theories explores the contribution of biopsychosocial processes in driving people to adopt habits that promote health. From the chapter’s conclusions, high middle-range theories are nearest to grand theories in similarities of concepts. Nightingale and Pender are theorists who recognized the effects of external factors on people’s health and proposed these considerations to nursing care plan through their theories.
Differences in the Conclusions from Chapter 6 and 11
While Pender’s theory of health promotion proposed nurse’s responsibility in empowering humans to adopt healthy lifestyles, Nightingale’s environmental theory proposed the nurse’s role in recognizing how a patient’s surroundings can affect their health and using that knowledge to help the patient recover. In Nightingale’s theory, people would live a relatively healthy life if all their human needs were met. Pender, however, thinks that humans need guidance on self-care habits that can promote their health.