Breast Cancer in African American Women

Breast Cancer in African American Women


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Clinical Question: In middle age African American women and breast cancer diagnosis, how does none compliance with mammogram screening compared to compliance mammogram screening, increase cases of breast cancer patients by the age of 50 years old?


P: African American middle age women

I: Noncompliance with mammogram screening

C: Compliance with mammogram screening

O: Increased breast cancer cases

T: By the age of 50 years.

Reason for Choosing This Topic

Over the years, African-American women have had lower incidences and rates of breast cancer compared to white women. However, death rates among African-American women have increased recently compared to any other group in the U.S because of breast cancer. The imperfect outcomes in cancer management remain mostly unexplained.  The principal target on the recent research about the disease has kept much focus on the genetic factors associated with the illness. Environmental factors that can lead to the health problem have been ignored, a significant step that has allowed increased cases of breast cancer among African-American women. The level of compliance with the available treatment methods also plays a vital role in the control and limitation of cancer cases among African Americans (Dietze et al., 2015). Purposely, the paper intends to discuss how compliance and noncompliance with mammogram screening raise cases of breast cancer patients by 50 years of age.

Mammogram Screening

Mammogram screening is the use of a low dose x-ray examination on breasts to cancer when it is still small to be felt as a lump. The process should be performed on ladies with no symptoms of any illness associated with breasts (Keenan et al., 2015). The primary purposes of Mammogram screening are to reduce death rates as a result of breast cancer by detecting the health condition at its early stage where it can be tackled effectively.  

During the process, a particular x-ray machine is applied to obtain a mammogram image while the breast is compressed between two slides.  The compression helps in the provision of a clear picture, making it possible to identify a cancer cell. It also creates the possibility of using less amount of radiation for the Mammogram screening. The compression can occasionally result in some bruising but does not harm the breasts (Salinas et al., 2018). It may be an uncomfortable process, but it functions for the greater good of early identification of cancer cases in patients for appropriate measures.

Effects of Compliance and Non-Compliance to Mammogram Screening to Increased Cases of Breast Cancer Patients by The Age of 50

The continuous discussion has happened in the healthcare industry, more specifically the cancer control centers about the effectiveness of using mammogram screening for cancer detection. The Discussion does not only base on the benefits of the process but also the harm it can cause to the patients. The process ca lead detection and activation of tumors that might not have progressed to become cancerous and life-threatening. The screening tool has no ability to differentiate over-diagnosed tumors and life-threatening tumors which can result in activation of a harmless cyst during an attempted treatment (Vichare, 2016). Therefore, compliance with mammogram screening can lead to the activation of cancer cells in the body if not performed by a well skilled medical practitioner and proper patient health analysis leading to increased cases of the medical problem in society.

On the other hand, screening is essential to help individuals understand the health status of their bodies. Every style of testing has its risks and benefits, creating the importance to consult a licensed and well-skilled physician before going through any screening tests.  One essential benefit of mammogram screening is its ability to identify a cancer case in the breasts of a woman before it advances to more complicated states. It creates room for simple operation or radiotherapy that exposes the patient to less danger while eliminating the identified cancer cells (Hubbard et al., 2016). Therefore, non- compliance to mammogram screening results in a state where a person is not aware of cases of cancer in the body, which gives the health problem the platform to advance to unmanageable levels that can leads to death.

Possible Integration of the Evidence in Clinical Practice

According to the healthcare practice, there is no specific set age to start breast cancer screening. The schedule for mammogram screening also cannot be fixed for all individuals. It is an issue that should be adequately discussed between the doctor and the subject to agree on the personal schedule depending on the risk factors, preferences, and benefits of the whole process. It is evident that breast cancer screening should start early for women to help minimize the risks of developing the disease (Vichare, 2016).  The high-risk elements include factors like a history of precancerous breast lesions and breast cancer history in the family. Therefore, encouraging women to comply to mammogram screening is substantially important and should be performed by a well trained professional.

Methods to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Implementation

The solution to decreasing the cases of breast cancer patients is to undergo programmed mammogram screening with a proper schedule and a properly trained medical practitioner to avoid exposure to more risks that can lead to the increased intensity of the problem. The effectiveness of the solution can be evaluated through assessment of the cancer cases before and after its implementation. A reduction in cancer cases among the aging African-American women will automatically indicate its success while an increase will be an indicator of failure. The assessment of the program can also be performed through the analysis of the current healthcare records. Reduced admissions and death rates as a result of breast cancer will automatically show the successful implementation of the program.

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