Islamic art and architecture


TOPIC: ISLAMIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE  ( Taj Mahal) CONNECTED TO ANYTHING FROM THE CITY OF JEDDAH. Font: Times New Roman size 12 double spaced. Essay style – no headings or sub-headings. write the connection from that was chosen from Jeddah In the first page , writing about Taj Mahal in the second page and writing the connection between the chosen thing in Jeddah and Taj Mahal in the third page.


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Art of the Islamic World PGS 142-154, 473-483

The Rise and Spread of Islam

Important: swiftness of Islam’s spread.

Caliphates of Damascus (Umayyads) and Baghdad (Abbasids)

Features: builders on a grand scale

Policy: adopt and adapt

Absence of figural representation in religious monuments, exceptions in secular

Dome of the Rock

Importance: first great Islamic monument

Patron: Caliph Abd al-Malik b. Marwan

Location: Jerusalem

Influence: Roman-Byzantine

Decoration: Umayyad mosaic and later Ottoman tiles, calligraphy

Motifs: natural, abstract, geometric

Jami Kairouan

Plan: Hypostyle

Importance: oldest preserved mosque

Influence:  Arcaded forecourt (Roman), atrium (Christian)

Abbasid Jami Samarra

Patron: Caliph al-Mutawakkil

Importance: largest in the world

Minaret: ‘al-malwiyya’ spiral

Andalusia: Jami Cordoba

Patron: abd al-Rahman I

Importance: center of European and world culture

Plan: Hypostyle, double-tiered horse-shoe shaped and lobed arches

Feature: light, airy, rhythm

Islamic experimentation: Dome: over mihrab, on octagonal base with ribs

Andalusia: Al-Hambra Palace (Red Palace)

Patrons: Nasrid dynasty

Function: royal residence and tower

Court of the Lions: fountain with 12 marble lions

Decoration: carved stucco, calligraphy, abstract motifs

Jami Isfahan

Patrons: Abbasids, later Seljuks

Plan: hypostyle (qibla iwan is largest)

Importance: 1st 4-iwan plan, later becomes standard Persian mosque plan

Safavid Madrasa Imami Mihrab

16th-17th c. Iran and Turkey: golden age of Islamic tile work and ceramic

Tile and ceramic function: as a veneer over bricks to cover entire buildings

Feature: Union between abstract and calligraphy

Motifs: geometric, abstract, floral

Luxury Arts

Abbasid 9-10th c Quran

Importance: masterpieces of Islamic calligraphy

Format: loose sheets in boxes or bound into books

Popular script: Kufic

Safavid Ardabil Carpet

Carpet production was a national industry

Feature: 25 million knots!

Mughal Portrait of Emperor Jahangir

Importance: evidence of courts connection with international ambassadors, kings, and Europe

Format: full page miniatures (small-sized paintings)

Influence: European art

Material: watercolour on paper

Purpose: book illustrations or loose pages in albums

Mughal Taj Mahal

Patron: Shah Jahan

Purpose: Mausoleum to his wife

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